Chinese Students and American Students


Intelligence quotient is the general cognitive ability of an individual along with the processing speed of his or her brain. Various groups or people and cultures have different beliefs and facts about the determinants of IQ and its subsequent significance on the success of an individual, academically and otherwise. Some of them that elicit significant debates are education, nutrition, and social consciousness. This paper discusses various case models that are aimed at testing the three parameters. As stated, it is expected that education is the most influential factor in the equation of IQ determination, followed by diet. Societal consciousness is a little contributor to the intelligence quotient.

Observation and Models

Critical Experiment One

It is going to be an experiment done to evaluate the relationship between education and intelligence. It is going to analyze if a regular presence of students in the learning institutions make them have a higher IQ. Students IQ will be checked when on summer holidays, and when they are at school. The experiment seeks to distinguish between the first model about textbooks and the second model that talk about diet-boosting smartness. If model one is true, then students from other European countries that have researched textbooks would be having smarter students. If model two is true, then we would expect to see more American students being smarter due to the increasing cases of people shifting to healthy diets in the US.

Critical Experiment Two

The next experiment is going to be one that seeks to establish the extent to which nutrition impacts on an individual’s smartness in varying societies.  It is to be conducted by comparing the intelligence quotient level of two different categories of students. The first group will be of students who solely feed on healthy meals while the others will be those who frequently take fast foods that are unhealthy. The task is to distinguish the second model of diet’s impact on smartness from the third model of social consciousness. If the second model is correct, I expect to see smarter students in countries that still have a stronger agricultural base such as South American nations. However, if the third model is proven right, we will anticipate seeing more intelligent students in countries that measure success using academic progress. Such nations include China.

Critical Experiment Three

The third one is going to examine if it is the social consciousness or high IQ that makes students have excellent performance. It will entail asking the learners personally what force drives them to succeed in school. The experiment seeks to distinguish between the first and third model. If the first model is to be true, then we would conclude that school performance is a good measure of IQ level. If otherwise, then we will believe that social consciousness is the factor that makes Chinese students smarter.

Description of the First Critical Experiment

This experiment seeks to establish the relationship between student’s intellectual quotient and their academic performance. The experience works on the assumption that academic performance greatly influences a student’s I.Q. The experiment will employ the use an intelligence quotient score to measure the independent variable which is the student’s intelligence. To determine the student’s IQ score, they will be presented with a pattern-matching and analytical test such as the Raven’s Progressive Matrices Test. The students will be presented will two set of tests one while at school and the other during the summer holidays.

The Independent and Dependent Variables

This experiment, therefore, implies that a student’s I.Q is dependent on their performance at school. Academic performance is thus the independent variable as it influences the level of a student’s I.Q. The level of I.Q, on the other hand, is the dependent variable that is depending on academic performance.

Operationalization of the Variables

The scores generated from the student’s tests will then be viewed as a representation of their intelligence. Students who score higher on the Raven’s Progressive Matrices Test are, therefore, assumed to have a higher IQ as compared to their colleagues with lower scores.

For the independent variable, the experiment will make use of the students’ average grade for the last two semesters. Academic success is always a measure of the students’ performance in the various subjects within a specified period. Therefore, the students who will have scored most A’s within the past two semesters will be deemed to be high academic performers. Students who are scoring few A’s, on the other hand, will be presumed to perform poorly in their academics.

The hypothesis for this experiment can, therefore, be stated as; excellent performance in academics can result in an increase in a student’s intelligence. From the hypothesis, it can be noted that performing well in school will increase a student’s intelligence. This statement implies that students who perform well in class tend to have a higher IQ as compared to their counterparts who perform poorly in their studies.

Findings and Results

Description of the Outcomes and the Models They Support

Judging from the hypothesis this experiment can have two possible outcomes. The first outcome which agrees with the hypothesis will prove that academic success indeed increases a student’s intellectual quotient. This outcome supports model one which implies that the content and depth of the textbooks used in schools contribute a lot to the performance and smartness of the students. This model measures the intelligence of the students in relation to the reading materials used in the learning institutions as well as their performance in class.

The second outcome which disagrees with the hypothesis will show that students who perform well in school do not necessarily have higher IQ’s compared to their fellows that perform poorly in class. This outcome means that a student’s IQ is not dependent on their academic success. This outcome supports the second model which maintains that a student’s intelligence is dependent on their diet.

Description of the Second Critical Experiment

The second experiment seeks to establish the relationship between an individual’s diet and their level of smartness. This experiment will reveal whether nutrition has any impact on a person’s IQ level. To measure the smartness level of the students, we will use their intellectual quotient level. The student’s intellectual quotient level, on the other hand, will be established by administering the Raven’s Progressive Matrices Test to the selected students from the two groups. The student’s diet will be evaluated to distinguish those who maintain a healthy diet from the ones that feed on fast foods. The students will then be divided into two groups of healthy eaters and fast food eaters.

The Independent and Dependent Variables

Since the experiment will be testing the effects of nutrition on student’s IQ, then student’s IQ is the dependent variable. Secondly, in this experience nutrition will be influencing the student’s smartness level thus making it the independent variable. The level of the student’s smartness is assumed to be dependent on their diet.

Operationalization of the Variables

To measure the dependent variable, the student’s Intellectual quotient score from the Raven’s Progressive Matrices test will be used as their measure of smartness. The independent variable, on the other hand, will be measured by assessing the student’s diet. Those students who take three meals a day that include; vegetables, fruits and a glass of water with every meal are assumed to maintain a healthy diet. Students who take less than three meals a day that mostly consists of junk food will, however, be presumed to maintain a poor nutritional diet.

The experiment, therefore, seeks to prove the hypothesis that students who maintain an extremely nutritious diet are smart. According to this hypothesis maintaining a healthy diet will boost an individual’s intellectual quotient. It also implies that students who feed on unhealthy foodstuff tend to have a lower IQ level and are thus not as sharp as their counterparts that feed on healthy meals.

Description of the Outcomes and the Models They Support

If the outcome of this experiment agrees with the hypothesis, then it will follow that the students who maintain a healthy diet have a higher IQ compared to their colleagues who heavily rely on fast foods. This particular outcome supports the second model which states that Chinese high school students have a higher intelligence quotient than the American ones due to the fact that the Chinese pay more attention to their diet. This model maintains that an individual’s smartness is greatly dependent on their nutrition. The model makes its assumptions based on the fact that diet plays a significant role in brain development.

The other outcome which disagrees with the hypothesis will show that diet does not influence a student’s smartness level. This outcome supports the third model that affirms that Chinese students study hard in school due to the social consciousness that success in studies is the only means of achieving a brighter future. This model, therefore, implies that social consciousness is the only factor that stirs students to aim for academic success which translates to them having a higher IQ.           

Description of the Third Critical Experiment

The third critical experiment seeks to establish the relationship between social consciousness and academic performance. This experiment will determine the impact of social consciousness on the students’ performance in school. The experiment will monitor the academic performance of the students for the previous semester and establish if their success from influenced by social consciousness. This experiment seeks to establish if the students that scored high grades during their last tests were pushed by the force of social consciousness to work extra work. The students will be interviewed to establish what motivates them to work extra hard in their studies. The experiment will include a scale which will be used to measure the extent to which social consciousness compels the students into obtaining an excellent performance.

The Independent and Dependent Variables

The third critical experiment seeks to establish the relationship between social consciousness and academic performance. This experiment will determine the impact of social consciousness on the students’ performance in school. Since social consciousness influences performance then the students’ performance is the dependent variable. Social consciousness, on the other hand, will be the independent variable as it is the one determining the students’ performance. Social consciousness is not reliant on the performance of the students.

Operationalization of the Variables

The students’ grades for the previous semester will be used to measure their performance. For instance, a student who scored A’s in a majority of their tests will be considered to have excellent performance. A student scoring only one A or none at all will is regarded as having performed poorly in class.

To measure the independent variable, the students will be expected to determine on a scale of 1 to 5 the degree to which social consciousness influences their performance in school. In the scale 1 will be interpreted to mean that social consciousness did not have any impact on the student’s performance. 5 on, the other hand, will mean that social consciousness was the force behind the student’s excellent performance. The hypothesis for this particular experiment, therefore, is that social consciousness significantly affects the performance of students.

Description of the Outcomes and the Models They Support

If the outcome of the experiment is such that social consciousness is proved to be the great force behind excellent performance among students, then the hypothesis is true. This outcome supports the third model that relates the common social consciousness of the Chinese that success in studies is the only way to achieve a better future with high performance among the Chinese students.

However, if the outcome of the experiment reveals that social consciousness does not influence the performance of students, then the hypothesis is proven to be false. This outcome supports the first model which upholds that the performance of a student is dependent on their IQ. This revelation, therefore, implies that school performance is a good measure of the student’s IQ level.

Expected Results from the Models Discussed

This experiment involves three parameters that are under investigation in relation to the Intelligence Quotient of an individual. They are education, nutrition, and social consciousness.  Some communities around the world have had the notion that the three factors affect someone’s intelligence either positively or negatively, depending on their interaction with them.

Intelligence quotient is defined as the score that an individual gets from a standardized test that has been designed to asses a person’s brainpower. It is a test of the human aptitude ability; meaning that it is the processing power of the brain in terms of calculations, cognition, and memory (Lynn & Vanhanen, 2002).

A person’s IQ is bound to be higher if their cognitive abilities and familiarity with certain knowledge is exposed to them. For instance, a person can hardly know what the shape of a hamburger is unless they have seen it before, regardless of whether he or she ate it. Therefore knowledge has a great impact on the general IQ of a person. Conversely, the intelligence quotient determines how fast an individual is bound to grasp new concepts, or remember old knowledge (Deary & Johnson, 2010). Therefore countries that prioritize high educational standards are likely to have higher mean IQ ratings than others with low literacy levels.

Certain foods are said to increase the intelligence quotient. They include those rich in fats and proteins (Daly, 2014). However, this component only affects children whose brain mass is rapidly growing. Poor diet during childhood has been linked to low IQ, which is longstanding throughout a person’s life (Gray, 2011). Therefore, it has no significant effect on people starting from the adolescence stage onwards.

Social consciousness is a great influence on a person’s academic achievement, but hardly does anything to improve or reduce an individual’s IQ. For instance, an individual’s ability to process and recognize things may not increase because he or she is forced by the societal expectation to excel. However, the individual may dedicate more time to study so that he or she can pass exams, in societies that equate success with academic excellence. Some students will perform better than others regardless of using lesser effort than them. Therefore, social consciousness may have an effect on emotional or social intelligence (CMC, 2014), but does not affect the intelligence quotient of an individual.

From the above discussion, it is expected that the outcomes of the experiments will show that education is the biggest influencer of IQ at any age, followed by nutrition during childhood. However, social awareness or consciousness has no significant impact on a person’s intelligence quotient. Therefore, the Chinese students are much likelier to have higher IQs compared to their American counterparts.

Benefits of Responsibility Assignment Matrix

Project management is an evolving discipline. Therefore, managers continuously seek mechanisms to enhance efficiency and optimize operations for a desired goal. It is in this context that responsibility assignment matrix emerges as a reliable partner and alternative for management efficiency. The concept entails the harmonized partaking of the tasks and specific responsibilities. Therefore, it improves accountability; consultation, minimizes duplication, and maximizes team output.

Responsibility assignment matrix heightens team and individual accountability in the production process. In many instances, it defines roles, targets, and relevant variables for completing the task. The clear outline minimizes confusion and makes every team member accountable for any specific action including meeting targets and deadlines (Springer, 2013). Therefore, it facilitates the process of assessing failure or success and points out areas of improvement.

Consultation is another crucial aspect of a sustainable project. The responsibility assignment matrix outlines all the stakeholders and components for ensuring the success of a project. These entail the planners, decision makers, participatory approaches, monitoring, and evaluation. Thus, close relation among these categories facilitates the consultation process through a practical two-way communication mechanism.

Besides, the concept minimizes duplication of project activities that in turn saves resources and enhances output. It accomplishes the issue by providing relevant progress information regarding planned activities, past events and future tasks (Springer, 2013). In addition, the division of tasks among the target parties and enhanced accountability reduces the incidences of duplication that often derail projects (Schibi, 2014). Thus, working in close teams characterized an excellent communication plan ensures a timely update and completion of target objectives.

Finally, the approach maximizes team output in the following ways. First, it reduces miscommunication during the project cycle. Second, it enhances clarity hen assigning tasks, helps in the management of information, and improves reporting. Thus, the project staffs actively share ideas that help improve individual and team output (Marks, 2012).

The mentioned characteristics including ensuring maximum output, team efficiency, consultation and accountability makes the mechanism desirable. Therefore, project implementers should strive to incorporate assignment matrix in the project cycle for maximum output.

Menu Comparison

Menu refers to the document that is found in hotels and restaurants documenting the various meal packages and accompanying prices of the packages. Therefore, a menu is a marketing document that is used by a restaurant or hotel to draw clients. The development of a menu, often, has to be in tandem with the theme that the restaurant or hotel offered. The content of a menu has the type of meal, foods within that mean and the matching prices of that meal (Smith, 2015). There are often decorations and graphics that are added to the menu make it attractive. In the hospitality sector, competition within different hotels is stiff and hotels compete mainly on their menu offers. The basis of competition also doubles up as the basis of comparison of offers from the different hotels. Some of the most notable comparison points are positioning for profit, placement of add-ons such as beverages and desserts, typesetting and font readability, Headings and groupings, capitalization, grammar, consistency and descriptive copy. This paper aims to make comparison of menu of Hotel Congress and The Dining Room hotels located within the United States of America.

To begin with, there is need to have an understanding of each hotel that is under analysis in this paper.  The hotel Congress is located in Arizona and was built in 1919.Though old; the hotel is attractive to the younger and the older generation. The hotel is strategically located in the capital of Arizona and offers a wide range of food packages and cuisines that is in tandem with the culture of the Arizonians. Those who frequent the hotel name it as the hub of the Tucson culture.

The dining room hotel is located in Santa Monica along the Oceania Street. The hotel offers mainly the oceanic cuisine. However, it also offer continental dishes. Those of British origin living around or visiting Santa Monica love the hotel because of their set of British delicacies. The dining room hotel offers accommodation. The location of the town is within town and accessible from the main transport infrastructure located within the town of Santa Monica.

The first main point of comparison of the two hotels is on their positioning for profit. The positioning for profit aspect is addressed through the strategic location of the hotel based on the target market that they aim to have (Briggs, 2012). Hotel Congress and The Dining Room are located in different geographical locations while they target the urban population mainly. Based on their positioning for profit, the two hotels have over ten breakfast packages in their breakfast options. The wide array of breakfast options that is provided for breakfast by the two hotels affirms their commitment to offers packages to all classes of people thus positioning themselves for profit. The grand gourmet breakfast buffet is the most comprehensive breakfast buffet at The Dining room costing $20.95 for adults and $10.50 for children. In the case of Hotel Congress, the menu lists specific menu options that one can buy without specificity of the age groups. As such, all classes of people are welcome to partake in their breakfast options.

Second, placement of add-ons in the menus of the hotels is also a comparison factor. The add-ons are often in the form of beverages and buffets that are offered by the specific hotels. The breakfast menu of the Dining Room has a package of beverages that clients can order to supplement the breakfast packages that they have chosen. The Dining Room breakfast menu has a specific listing of all the set of beverages that are offered for breakfast and the accompanying price of each beverage. Hotel congress also offers a set of beverages to its clients. However, the beverages are not succinctly marked in a separate category of the menu as beverages. Therefore, the menu of The Dining Room scores high in the placement of add-ons in their menu owing to the specification of the beverages that are offered by the hotel in their breakfast package.

Third, the typesetting and font readability of the two menus serves to inform one of the attractiveness that they offer to their target clients. The two menus that are discussion in this paper are all drawn from the websites of the two hotels. The internet is the new frontier in the marketing of the products that are offered by a company or an organization (Burke, Vaisutis&Cummings, 2007). The marketing through the internet is largely influenced by the growing internet users. Many internet users who utilize the services of hotels in the urban areas prefer to sample the menus of different hotel to enable them make the informed decision on the best package that suits their needs (Ford, 2009). Therefore, the typesetting of the different menus has to be made perfectly well and they have to be readable. The breakfast menu of The Dining Room is typed using font 13 thus easily readable for all. The type in each category of meals offered per breakfast package is centered thus making each to be differently categorized. Furthermore, there is a column that has been created in the second page of the menu thus affirming a good typesetting of the menu. The Breakfast menu of The Hotel Congress is typed using font 11 making it equally readable. The heading of each category of breakfast package is made in bold and the content per category is centered. From the look of the two menus, each of the two menus is well type set. The menu of the Hotel Congress is, however, easily readable compared to the menu of The Dining Room Hotel.

Fourth, the headings and groupings in the two menus have a direct relating with the manner at which they have been constituted. The menu of The Dining Room has more groupings compared to the menu of the Hotel Congress. The groupings made in the menu are representative of the meal options that are offered within the hotel. Each meal option is well placed is a different category to allow for choice. The breakfast menu of the Dining room Hotel has the groupings of more comprehensive meal options at the top of the menu. The breakfast menu of the Hotel Congress has the groupings of the more elaborate meal option at the bottom of the menu. The headings of the menu in the Dining room menu are bigger in font that the headings of the Hotel Congress menu. As such, it is easier for one to read the different breakfast menu options at a glance when given the Dining Room menu as opposed to the Hotel Congress menu.

Fifth, capitalization, grammar and consistency present another field that aids the comparison of the two menus. The heading of each meal category in the menu of Hotel congress is capitalized. The heading of the meal category of Dining Room has only the first word capitalized. The grammar that is used in the two menus is good and easy to comprehend. There is consistency in the manner at which the two menus are used. The font name, type and size are all consistent in the two menus. The menu choice, therefore, offers ease of the clients to go through. However, there is a difference in consistency in the manner at which the price of each meal category is presented. In the Dining Room menu, the prices of the first two sets of meal options are written at the bottom of the meal option then the other meal options are written besides the title of each meal options. On the other hand, the price of each meal option in the hotel Congress menu is written at the side of each meal option from top to bottom.

Finally, the descriptive copy is also a comparison factor from the look of the two menus. The menu of The Dining Room is more descriptive owing to the wide options of meals that they offer to their clients. On the other hand, the menu of the Hotel Congress is less descriptive.

In conclusion, the six different comparison options rank the two different menus differently. The Dining Room is has beverages, bigger font in the title for ease of readability, groupings of different meal categories and descriptive. On the other hand, the menu of the Hotel Congress has consistency in its font, has the headings fully capitalized and has consistency in positioning of the prices of each meal option.